What Is Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer or testicular cancer warns men mostly older than 40 years of age. Nearly 240,000 cases are being diagnosed yearly and around 34000 lives are being ruined by this calamitous condition only in America.

Prostate is an organ found in the male reproductive system near the bladder and the urethra, which produces some minerals and sugar found in semen that needed to nourish and to the transportation of sperm cells. It grows with age so in elder people it has got a large size. Because of this nature, elder men are more likely to adopt this condition.

Cancer is a condition in which the growth of cells is out of control. Rapid growth of cells in a specific organ makes tumor. When tumor grows big in size, causes lot of pointless things. This tumor can sometimes interrupt the smooth function of nearby organs.  This condition is known as cancer and the tumor as malignant. Benign tumor doesn’t invade or destroy nearby cells.

No one knows the actual reason for cancer. But some factors can leads to this point such as age, diet, genetic factors, and infection and chemical agents.

Most men with prostate cancer don’t show any symptoms at beginning as most cases are slow-growing. While some other cases are aggressive. In the aggressive form of prostate cancer more complicated symptoms develop within a short period of time as cancer spread to other organs such as bones, lymph nodes, lungs and liver. Thus, they can show some symptoms like fatigue, malaise and weight lose with severe pain in upper thigh bone and pelvic area. When the cancer spread to the liver and lungs they can show abdominal pain, jaundice, chest pain and coughing. As a clear notification blood in urine and sperm can be seen. Discomfort and urinating trouble can be experienced at the beginning.

Types of prostate cancer

Its types are categorized according to the growth and spread at the time of diagnosed. Prostate cancer can spread in three ways such as growing into nearby tissues, through lymph vessels and nodes and through the blood vessels (metastasis). So, there are four stages of prostate cancer as follow.

Stage I prostate cancer:  Restricted in to the prostate gland only. It can’t be felt on digital rectal exam or prostate imaging.

Stage II prostate cancer:  Fully grown tumor but no further spread.

Stage III prostate cancer:  in which cancer has spread mildly beyond prostate gland.

State IV:  this is the last stage. In which cancer has spread to lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.

It’s very important to undergo a regular prostate screening to identify cancer and determine the apt treatment options. It is very necessary to diagnose the prostate cancer at the beginning on which it curable.

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Regular Screening:

There are some opportunities for annual screening for every man over 40 years of age if they have any strong family history related to prostate cancer. Otherwise, any men with any of the above said symptoms may need to undergo a regular prostate cancer screen.

Digital Rectal Exam:

This is a very usual examination in which a physician will examine your prostate for any changes like a lump or nodule on the prostate surface or unusual firmness or irregular shape of prostate with a gloved and lubricated finger.

Prostate Specific Antigen Test:

This is a kind of blood test in which a blood sample will be examined for the level of Prostate Specific Antigen. PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland, if the level of PSA is high in your blood sample there is a chance that you may develop prostate cancer. Further, PSA level can be increased with some other factors.   A positive result of PSA test will take you to the next level of testing.

Prostatic Biopsy:

Very summarizing test for prostate cancer. A pathologist will observe some pieces of tissues were taken from your prostate. To take the tissue specimens from your prostate a tiny needle will be injected into your prostate and pulled out with too little amount of trapped tissues. As the expert uses local anesthesia you won’t feel any pain during the process. In which the stage of the prostate cancer also can be determined. A positive result of prostatic biopsy leads to any other test to determine the aggressiveness of the prostate cancer.

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Ultrasound, Bone Scan, and MRI/CT scan are other imaging methods being used to determine the spread of the prostate cancer. And these test results are very important to plan an apt treatment.

Treatment of Prostate Cancer

There some types of standard treatment method are being used to treat prostate cancer. Before implement, any of the following treatment options should monitor the patient very closely for active surveillance.

Treatment for Cancer Patients includes:

Surgery:

There are some types of surgical operation methods available according the patient’s condition and prostate cancer stage.

Radical Prostatectomy:

A surgery to remove prostate and some nearby tissues. It is done only if the cancer has not spread outside the prostate.

Retropubic Prostatectomy:

With this method of surgery prostate and some nearby lymph nodes also can be removed through an incision on the abdominal wall.

Perineal Prostatectomy:

In this method prostate will be removed through an incision made in the area between scrotum and anus. But, lymph nodes will be removed through another incision made on the abdominal area.

Pelvic lymphadenectomy:

This is a surgical operation carried out to remove the lymph nodes in the pelvis to look for cancer cells. If pathologist finds any cancer cells in lymph nodes, will not remove the prostate and recommend for another method.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP):

This is to remove the prostate tissue that is blocking urethra is cut away and removed through the resectoscope which is inserted through the urethra. Mostly done in patients who have benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate). This is done before other treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy is a treatment method that uses high energy radiation to kills cancer cells and shrink tumor. The therapy can be carried out in two ways as per the type and stage of the cancer.

External radiation: the high energy radiation produces by the machine kept outside of the body and directed the radiation towards the cancer.

Internal radiation/ brachy therapy: a radioactive material will be placed in to or near the cancer infected area. And this material may be removed after meet the required dose of radiation.

Men who treated the prostate cancer with radiation therapy are at risk of bladder cancer and/or rectal cancer and also urinary problem may be experienced for a while.

Hormone Therapy:

Male hormone is a factor behind the prostate cancer as it takes part in growth of the prostate gland.  Thus it’s better to regulate the hormone to reduce the growth of the cancer.

Here are some hormone regulating methods,Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists:  used to prevent the testicles from producing testosterone.

Antiandrogens: used to block the androgen action.

Orchiectomy: surgical operation carried out to remove testicles.

Female hormone: Estrogens that promote female sex characteristics can stop the testicles from producing testosterone

Chemotherapy:

In which some drugs are being used to kill the cancer cells or stop them from dividing. Though there are some drugs available to treat prostate cancer not as good as other treatment methods. These drugs is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle.

Biologic therapy:

This method uses the patient’s immune system to fight the cancer. Substances used to regulate the body’s immune system can be made by the body or in a laboratory.

Cryotherapy:

This is a surgery process used to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells by using an instrument. Furthermore, there are some clinical trials available for Prostate Cancer Patients to go with.

Anyway diagnose the disease at the beginning is the most needed thing in curing any disease. So, please be more vigilance in your health.